I have been looking through this fantastic article: http://blogs.zynaptiq.com/bernsee/pitch-shifting-using-the-ft/

While being fantastic, it is extremely hard and heavy going. This material is really stretching me.

I have extracted the maths from Stefan's code module that calculates the exact frequency for a given bin. But I don't understand the last calculation. Can someone explain to me the mathematical construction at the end?

Before digging into the code, let me set the scene:

Let's say we set fftFrameSize = 1024, so we are dealing with 512+1 bins

As an example, Bin[1]'s ideal frequency fits a single wave in the frame. At a sample rate of 40KHz, tOneFrame = 1024/40K seconds = 1/40s, so Bin[1] would ideally be collecting a 40Hz signal.

Setting osamp (overSample) = 4, we progress along our input signal in steps of 256. So the first analysis examines bytes zero through 1023, then 256 through 1279, etc. Note each float gets processed 4 times.

...

```
void calcBins(
long fftFrameSize,
long osamp,
float sampleRate,
float * floats,
BIN * bins
)
{
/* initialize our static arrays */
static float gFFTworksp[2*MAX_FRAME_LENGTH];
static float gLastPhase[MAX_FRAME_LENGTH/2+1];
static long gInit = 0;
if (! gInit)
{
memset(gFFTworksp, 0, 2*MAX_FRAME_LENGTH*sizeof(float));
memset(gLastPhase, 0, (MAX_FRAME_LENGTH/2+1)*sizeof(float));
gInit = 1;
}
/* do windowing and re,im interleave */
for (long k = 0; k < fftFrameSize; k++)
{
double window = -.5*cos(2.*M_PI*(double)k/(double)fftFrameSize)+.5;
gFFTworksp[2*k] = floats[k] * window;
printf("sinValue: %f", gFFTworksp[2*k]);
gFFTworksp[2*k+1] = 0.;
}
/* do transform */
smbFft(gFFTworksp, fftFrameSize, -1);
printf("\n");
/* this is the analysis step */
for (long k = 0; k <= fftFrameSize/2; k++)
{
/* de-interlace FFT buffer */
double real = gFFTworksp[2*k];
double imag = gFFTworksp[2*k+1];
/* compute magnitude and phase */
double magn = 2.*sqrt(real*real + imag*imag);
double phase = atan2(imag,real);
/* compute phase difference */
double phaseDiff = phase - gLastPhase[k];
gLastPhase[k] = phase;
/* subtract expected phase difference */
double binPhaseOffset = M_TWOPI * (double)k / (double)osamp;
double deltaPhase = phaseDiff - binPhaseOffset;
/* map delta phase into [-Pi, Pi) interval */
// better, but obfuscatory...
// deltaPhase -= M_TWOPI * floor(deltaPhase / M_TWOPI + .5);
while (deltaPhase >= M_PI)
deltaPhase -= M_TWOPI;
while (deltaPhase < -M_PI)
deltaPhase += M_TWOPI;
```

(EDIT:) Now the bit I don't get:

```
// Get deviation from bin frequency from the +/- Pi interval
// Compute the k-th partials' true frequency
// Start with bin's ideal frequency
double bin0Freq = (double)sampleRate / (double)fftFrameSize;
bins[k].idealFreq = (double)k * bin0Freq;
// Add deltaFreq
double sampleTime = 1. / (double)sampleRate;
double samplesInStep = (double)fftFrameSize / (double)osamp;
double stepTime = sampleTime * samplesInStep;
double deltaTime = stepTime;
// Definition of frequency is rate of change of phase, i.e. f = dϕ/dt
// double deltaPhaseUnit = deltaPhase / M_TWOPI; // range [-.5, .5)
double freqAdjust = (1. / M_TWOPI) * deltaPhase / deltaTime;
// Actual freq <-- WHY ???
bins[k].freq = bins[k].idealFreq + freqAdjust;
}
}
```

I just can't see it clearly, even though it seems to be staring in the face. Could someone please explain this process from scratch, step by step?

`BIN * bins`

what does it stand for?